Researchers have found that the activity of TLR9, which has a role in pathogen recognition, varies throughout the day, following a set pattern controlled by the body clock. Mice immunised at the time of day where TLR9 activity is at its peak showed a greater immune response to the vaccine. Additionally, mouse survival rates from induced sepsis differed depending on the time of day that sepsis was induced. Researchers state that this has important implications for drug and vaccine administration to humans. For more on this story, please read