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Gene Family: Receptor tyrosine kinases

Also known as : "RTKs"
A subset of : Receptor kinases

Receptor tyrosine kinases:

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), a family of cell-surface receptors, which transduce signals to polypeptide and protein hormones, cytokines and growth factors are key regulators of critical cellular processes, such as proliferation and differentiation, cell survival and metabolism, cell migration and cell cycle control [1-2,4]. In the human genome, 58 RTKs have been identified, which fall into 20 families [3].

All RTKs display an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane helix, a cytoplasmic region containing the protein tyrosine kinase activity (occasionally split into two domains by an insertion, termed the kinase insertion), with juxta-membrane and C-terminal regulatory regions. Agonist binding to the extracellular domain evokes dimerization, and sometimes oligomerization, of RTKs (a small subset of RTKs forms multimers even in the absence of activating ligand). This leads to autophosphorylation in the tyrosine kinase domain in a trans orientation, serving as a site of assembly of protein complexes and stimulation of multiple signal transduction pathways, including phospholipase C-γ, mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [4].

RTKs are of widespread interest not only through physiological functions, but also as drug targets in many types of cancer and other disease states. Many diseases result from genetic changes or abnormalities that either alter the activity, abundance, cellular distribution and/or regulation of RTKs. Therefore, drugs that modify the dysregulated functions of these RTKs have been developed which fall into two categories. One group is often described as 'biologicals', which block the activation of RTKs directly or by chelating the cognate ligands, while the second are small molecules designed to inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity directly.


  • Type I RTKs: ErbB (epidermal growth factor) receptor family
  • Type II RTKs: Insulin receptor family
  • Type III RTKs: PDGFR, CSFR, Kit, FLT3 receptor family
  • Type IV RTKs: VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor family
  • Type V RTKs: FGF (fibroblast growth factor) receptor family
  • Type VI RTKs: PTK7/CCK4
  • Type VII RTKs: Neurotrophin receptor/Trk family
  • Type VIII RTKs: ROR family
  • Type IX RTKs: MuSK
  • Type X RTKs: HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor family
  • Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family
  • Type XII RTKs: TIE family of angiopoietin receptors
  • Type XIII RTKs: Ephrin receptor family
  • Type XIV RTKs: RET
  • Type XV RTKs: RYK
  • Type XVI RTKs: DDR (collagen receptor) family
  • Type XVII RTKs: ROS receptors
  • Type XVIII RTKs: LMR family
  • Type XIX RTKs: Leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK) receptor family
  • Type XX RTKs: STYK1

Family contains the following subsets

Genes contained within the family: 40

Approved Symbol Approved Name Previous Symbols Synonyms Chromosome
AATK apoptosis associated tyrosine kinase AATYK, KIAA0641, LMTK1, LMR1, AATYK1, PPP1R77 17q25.3
ALK ALK receptor tyrosine kinase CD246 2p23.2-p23.1
AXL AXL receptor tyrosine kinase UFO, JTK11, Tyro7, ARK 19q13.2
CSF1R colony stimulating factor 1 receptor FMS C-FMS, CSFR, CD115 5q32
DDR1 discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1 NTRK4, PTK3A, NEP, CAK, EDDR1 RTK6, CD167 6p21.33
DDR2 discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 TYRO10, NTRKR3 TKT 1q23.3
FGFR1 fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 FLT2, KAL2 H2, H3, H4, H5, CEK, FLG, BFGFR, N-SAM, CD331 8p11.23
FGFR2 fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 KGFR, BEK, CFD1, JWS CEK3, TK14, TK25, ECT1, K-SAM, CD332 10q26.13
FGFR3 fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 ACH CEK2, JTK4, CD333 4p16.3
FGFR4 fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 JTK2, CD334 5q35.2
FLT1 fms related tyrosine kinase 1 FLT VEGFR1 13q12.3
FLT3 fms related tyrosine kinase 3 STK1, FLK2, CD135 13q12.2
FLT4 fms related tyrosine kinase 4 VEGFR3, PCL 5q35.3
IGF1R insulin like growth factor 1 receptor JTK13, CD221, IGFIR, MGC18216, IGFR 15q26.3
INSR insulin receptor CD220 19p13.2
INSRR insulin receptor related receptor IRR 1q23.1
KDR kinase insert domain receptor FLK1, VEGFR, VEGFR2, CD309 4q12
KIT KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase PBT CD117, SCFR, C-Kit 4q12
LMTK2 lemur tyrosine kinase 2 KIAA1079, KPI2, KPI-2, cprk, LMR2, BREK, AATYK2, PPP1R100 7q21.3
LMTK3 lemur tyrosine kinase 3 KIAA1883, LMR3, TYKLM3, PPP1R101 19q13.33
LTK leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase TYK1 15q15.1
MERTK MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase mer, RP38, c-Eyk, Tyro12 2q13
MET MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase HGFR, RCCP2, DFNB97 7q31
MST1R macrophage stimulating 1 receptor RON, PTK8 CDw136, CD136 3p21.31
MUSK muscle associated receptor tyrosine kinase 9q31.3
NTRK1 neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1 TRK, TRKA, MTC 1q23.1
NTRK2 neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 TRKB 9q21.33
NTRK3 neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 3 TRKC 15q25.3
PDGFRA platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha CD140a, PDGFR2, GAS9 4q12
PDGFRB platelet derived growth factor receptor beta PDGFR JTK12, CD140b, PDGFR1 5q32
PTK7 protein tyrosine kinase 7 (inactive) CCK4 6p21.1
RET ret proto-oncogene HSCR1, MEN2A, MTC1, MEN2B PTC, CDHF12, RET51, CDHR16 10q11.21
ROR1 receptor tyrosine kinase like orphan receptor 1 NTRKR1 1p31.3
ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinase like orphan receptor 2 NTRKR2, BDB, BDB1 9q22.31
ROS1 ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase MCF3, ROS, c-ros-1 6q22.1
RYK receptor-like tyrosine kinase JTK5A D3S3195, RYK1, JTK5 3q22.2
STYK1 serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1 SuRTK106, DKFZp761P1010, NOK 12p13.2
TEK TEK receptor tyrosine kinase VMCM TIE2, TIE-2, VMCM1, CD202b 9p21.2
TIE1 tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin like and EGF like domains 1 TIE JTK14 1p34.2
TYRO3 TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase RSE Dtk, Brt, Tif, Sky, Etk-2, Rek 15q15.1

Genes contained within subsets