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Gene Family: Toll like receptors (TLR)

Also known as : "Toll-like receptors"

Toll-like receptor: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed in sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. Once these microbes have breached physical barriers such as the skin or intestinal tract mucosa, they are recognized by TLRs, which activate immune cell responses. The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the latter 3 are not found in human. They received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard. The researchers were so surprised that they spontaneously shouted out in German, " Das ist ja toll! " which translates as "That's great!" [Source: Wikipedia]

Genes contained within the family: 10

Approved Symbol Approved Name Previous Symbols Synonyms Chromosome
TLR1 toll like receptor 1 rsc786, KIAA0012, CD281 4p14
TLR2 toll like receptor 2 TIL4, CD282 4q32
TLR3 toll like receptor 3 CD283 4q35
TLR4 toll like receptor 4 hToll, CD284, TLR-4, ARMD10 9q33.1
TLR5 toll like receptor 5 SLEB1 TIL3, FLJ10052, MGC126430, MGC126431 1q32.3-q42
TLR6 toll like receptor 6 CD286 4p16.1
TLR7 toll like receptor 7 Xp22.3
TLR8 toll like receptor 8 CD288 Xp22
TLR9 toll like receptor 9 CD289 3p21.3
TLR10 toll like receptor 10 CD290 4p14