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Gene Family: Calcium channel auxiliary gamma subunits (CACNG)

Also known as : " CCAγ", "Calcium channel gamma subunit"

Voltage-dependent calcium channel: Voltage-dependent calcium channels ( VDCCs ) are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells ( e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca 2+. These channels are slightly permeable to sodium ions, so they are also called Ca 2+ -Na + channels, but their permeability to calcium is about 1000-fold greater than to sodium under normal physiological conditions. At physiologic or resting membrane potential, VDCCs are normally closed. They are activated ( i.e., opened) at depolarized membrane potentials and this is the source of the "voltage-dependent" epithet. The concentration of calcium (Ca 2+ ions) is normally several thousand times higher outside of the cell than inside. Activation of particular VDCCs allows Ca 2+ to rush into the cell, which, depending on the cell type, results in activation of calcium-sensitive potassium channels, muscular contraction, excitation of neurons, up-regulation of gene expression, or release of hormones or neurotransmitters. VDCCs have been immunolocalized in the zona glomerulosa of normal and hyperplastic human adrenal, as well as in aldosterone -producing adenomas (APA), and in the latter T-type VDCCs correlated with plasma aldosterone levels of patients. Excessive activation of VDCCs is a major component of excitotoxicity, as severely elevated levels of intracellular calcium activates enzymes which, at high enough levels, can degrade essential cellular structures. [Source: Wikipedia]

Genes contained within the family: 8

Approved Symbol Approved Name Previous Symbols Synonyms Chromosome
CACNG1 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 1 CACNLG 17q24.2
CACNG2 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 2 stargazin, MGC138502, MGC138504 22q12.3
CACNG3 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 3 16p12.1
CACNG4 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 4 MGC11138, MGC24983 17q24.2
CACNG5 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 5 17q24.2
CACNG6 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 6 19q13.42
CACNG7 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 7 19q13.42
CACNG8 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 8 19q13.42

Comments

The calcium channel gamma subunits comprise an eight-member protein family that share a common topology consisting of four transmembrane domains and intracellular N- and C-termini. Although the first gamma subunit was identified as an auxiliary subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel, a review of phylogenetic, bioinformatic, and functional studies indicates that they are a functionally diverse protein family.

Publications

17652770