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Gene Family: DNA glycosylases

DNA glycosylase: DNA glycosylases are a family of enzymes involved in base excision repair, classified under EC number EC 3.2.2. Base excision repair is the mechanism by which damaged bases in DNA are removed and replaced. DNA glycosylases catalyze the first step of this process. They remove the damaged nitrogenous base while leaving the sugar-phosphate backbone intact, creating an apurinic/apyrimidinic site, commonly referred to as an AP site. This is accomplished by flipping the damaged base out of the double helix followed by cleavage of the N- glycosidic bond. Glycosylases were first discovered in bacteria, and have since been found in all kingdoms of life. In addition to their role in base excision repair DNA glycosylase enzymes have been implicated in the repression of gene silencing in A. thaliana, N. tabacum and other plants by active demethylation. 5-methylcytosine residues are excised and replaced with unmethylated cytosines allowing access to the chromatin structure of the enzymes and proteins necessary for transcription and subsequent translation. [Source: Wikipedia]

Genes contained within the family: 11

Approved Symbol Approved Name Previous Symbols Synonyms Chromosome
MBD4 methyl-CpG binding domain 4, DNA glycosylase MED1 3q21.3
MPG N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase MDG 16p13.3
MUTYH mutY DNA glycosylase MYH 1p34.1
NEIL1 nei like DNA glycosylase 1 FLJ22402, hFPG1, NEI1, FPG1 15q24.2
NEIL2 nei like DNA glycosylase 2 NEH2, FLJ31644, MGC2832, MGC4505 8p23.1
NEIL3 nei like DNA glycosylase 3 FLJ10858, hFPG2, FPG2, hNEI3, ZGRF3 4q34.3
NTHL1 nth like DNA glycosylase 1 NTH1, OCTS3 16p13.3
OGG1 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase HMMH, HOGG1, OGH1, MUTM 3p25.3
SMUG1 single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 UNG3, FDG, HMUDG 12q13.13
TDG thymine DNA glycosylase 12q23.3
UNG uracil DNA glycosylase DGU UDG, UNG1, UNG2, HIGM4 12q24.11

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